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The Great Dane Standard Through the Ages Part II ~1945~

The Official Illustrated Standard of the
Great Dane Club of America, INC.
1945

(Typed for easy reading below each picture which has made this post EXTREMELY long. Also, you *should* be able to click on the pictures to enlarge, but sadly still not enough to read the charts.)



BREEDERS CODED OF ETHICS
as endorsed by
THE GREAT DANE CLUB OF AMERICA

There are only five recognize colors; all these basically fall into four color strains: 1 FAWN and BRINDLE, 2. HARLEQUIN and HARLEQUIN bred BLACK, 3. BLUE and BLUE bred BLACK, 4. BLACK. Color classifications being well founded, the Great Dane Club of America, Inc. considers it an inadvisable practice to mix color strains and it is the club's policy to adhere to the following matings:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
FAWN TO FAWN OR BRINDLE ONLY

BRINDLE TO BRINDLE OR FAWN ONLY

Pedigrees of FAWN or BRINDLED Danes should not carry HARLEQUIN, BLACK or BLUE upon them
------------------------------------------------------------------------
HARLEQUIN TO HARLEQUIN OR HARLEQUIN BRED BLACK ONLY

BLACK FROM HARLEQUIN BREEDING TO HARLEQUIN OR HARLEQUIN BRED BLACK ONLY

Pedigrees of HARLEQUIN or HARLEQUIN bred BLACK Danes should not carry FAWN, BRINDLE or BLUE upon them.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
BLUE TO BLUE OR BLUE BRED BLACK ONLY

BLACK FROM BLUE BREEDING TO BLUE OR BLACK FROM BLUE BREEDING ONLY

Pedigrees of BLUE or BLUE bred BLACK Danes should not carry FAWN, BRINDLE or HARLEQUIN upon them.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
BLACK FROM BLACK BREEDING TO BLACK FROM BLACK BREEDING ONLY

Pedigrees of BLACK bred Danes should not carry FAWN, BRINDLE, HARLEQUIN or BLUE upon them.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
ALL COLORS SHALL BE PURE COLOR BRED FOR FOUR (4) GENERATIONS

It is our belief that color mixing other than that set forth above is injurious to our breed. Breeders of Black, Blue or Harlequin Danes will be expected to clear their lines by 1975. Thereafter, pedigrees shall be four (4) generation pure color bred.


This pedigree is available only to those members who pledge and adhere to our Breeders Code of Ethics.


The Official Illustrated Standard
of the
GREAT DANE

Revised and Edited
by
THE GREAT DANE CLUB OF AMERICA INC.

Illustrated by
Donald E. Gauthier

1. GENERAL CONFORMATION.................. 30 points
     a. General Appearance.............................. 10 points
     b. Color and Markings..............................   8 points
     c. Size......................................................    5 points
     d. Condition of Coat................................     4 points
     e. Subsance............................................       3 points

2. MOVEMENT......................................... 28 points
    a. Gait................................................... 10 points
    b. Rear End (Croup, Legs, Paws).......... 10 points
    c. Front End (Shoulders, Legs, Paws)....   8 points

3. HEAD....................................................... 20 points
    a. Head Conformation........................... 12 points
    b. Teeth................................................   4 points
    c. Eyes (Nose and Ears).......................    4 points

4. TORSO.................................................... 20 points
    a. Neck................................................ 6 points
    b. Loin and Back.................................. 6 points
    c. Chest...............................................  4 points
    d. Ribs and Brisket..............................   4 points

5. TAIL.......................................................... 2 points

                                                           TOTAL......100 points


1. GENERAL CONFORMATION --- 30 points

a. General Appearance - 10 points
     The Great Dane combines in its distinguished appearance, dignity, strength and elegance with great size and a powerful, well-formed, smoothly muscled body. He is one of the giant breeds but is unique in that his general conformation must be so well-balanced that he never appears clumsy and is always a unit - the Apollo of dogs. (See Chart #1.) He must be spirited and courageous - never timid. He is friendly and dependable. This physical and mental combination is the characteristic which give the Great Dane the majesty possessed by no other breed. It is particularly true of this breed that there is an impression of great masculinity in dogs as compared to an impression of femininity in bitches. The male should appear more massive throughout than the bitch, with larger frame and heavier bone. In the ratio between length and height, the Great Dane should appear as square as possible. (See Chart #3.) In bitches, a somewhat longer body is permissible. Faults: Lack of unity; timidity; bitchy dogs; poor musculature; poor bone development; out of condition; rickets; doggy bitches.



b. Colors and Markings --- 8 points
     a) Color: Brindled Danes. Base color ranging from light golden yellow to deep golden yellow always brindled with strong black cross stripes. The more intense the base color and the more intensive the brindling, the more attractive will be the color. Small white marks at the chest and toes are not desirable. Faults: Brindles with too dark a base color; silver-blue and grayish-blue base color; dull (faded) brindling; white tail tip.
     b) Fawn Danes. Color yellow up to deep golden yellow color with a deep black mask. The deep golden yellow must always be given the preference. Small white spots at the chest and toes are not desirable. Faults: Yellowish-gray, bluish-yellow, grayish-yellow, dirty yellow color (drab color), lack of black mask.
     c) Blue Danes. The color must be a pure steel blue as far as possible without any tinge of yellow, black or mouse gray. Faults. Any deviation from a pure steel-blue coloration.
     d) Black Danes. Glossy black. Faults: Yellow black, brown black or blue black. White markings, such as stripes on the chest, speckled chest and markings on the paws are permitted but not desirable.
     e) Harlequin Danes. Base color: Pure white with black torn patches irregularly and well-distributed over the entire body; pure white neck preferred. The black patches should never be large enough to give the appearance of a blanket nor so small as to give a stippled or dappled effect. (Eligible but less desirable are a few small gray spots, also pointings where instead of a pure white base with black spots there is a white base with single black black hairs showing through which tend to give a salt and pepper or dirty effect.) Faults: White base color with a few large spots; bluish-gray pointed background.

c. Size --- 5 points
    The male should not be less than 30" at the shoulders but it is preferable that he be 32" or more, providing he is well proportioned to his height. The female should not be less than 28" at the shoulders but it is preferrable that she be 30" or more, providing she is well proportioned to her height.

d. Substance --- 3 points
     Substance is that sufficiency of bone and muscle which rounds out a balance with the frame. Faults: Light-weight whippety Danes: (See Chart #4.); course, ungainly proportioned Danes (See Chart #5.); Always there should be a balance.

e. Condition of Coat --- 4 points
     The coat should be very short and thick, smooth and glossy. Faults: Excessively long hair (stand-off coat); dull hair (indicating malnutrition, worms and negligent care).


c. Front End (Shoulders, Legs, Paws) --- 8 points
     Shoulders - The shoulder blade must be strong and sloping and, seen from the side, must form as nearly as possibly a right angle in its articulation with the humerus (upper arm) to give a long stride (See Chart #28-29). Since all dogs lack a clavicle (collar bone) the ligaments and muscles holding the shoulder blade to the rib cage must be well developed, firm and secure to prevent loose shoulders (See Chart #30). Faults: Steep shoulders (See Chart #31, which occur if the shoulder blade does not slope sufficiently; over angulation (See Chart #32); loose shoulders, which occur if the Dane is flabbily muscled, or, if the elbow is turned toward the outside; loaded shoulders.

     Forelegs - The upper arm should be strong and muscular. Seen from the side or front the strong lower arms run absolutely straight to the pastern joints. Seen from the front, the forelegs and the pastern roots should form perpendicular lines to the ground (See Chart #33). Seen from the side, the pastern root should slope only very slightly forward (See Chart #34). Faults: Elbows turned toward the inside or toward the outside (See Chart #35-36), the former position caused mostly by too narrow or too shallow a chest, bringing the front legs too closely together and at the same time turning the entire lower part of the legs outward; the latter position causes the front legs to spread too far apart, with the pastern roots and paws usually turned inward. Seen from the side, a considerable bend in the pastern toward the front (See Chart #37) indicates weakness and is in most cases connected with stretched and spread toes (splay foot); seen from the side (See Chart #38) a forward bow in the forearm (chair leg); and excessively knotty bulge in the front of the pastern joint (See Chart #39).

     Paws - round and turned neither toward the inside nor toward the outside. Toes short, highly arched and well closed. Nails short, strong and as dark as possible. Faults: Spreading toes (splay foot), bent, long toes (rabbit toes); toes turned toward the outside or toward the inside; light colored nails.



2. MOVEMENT --- 28 Points

a. Gait - 10 points
     Long, easy, springy stride with no tossing or rolling of body. The back line should move smoothly, parallel to the ground. The gait of the Great Dane should denote strength and power. The rear legs should have drive. The forelegs should track smoothly and straight. The Dane should track in two parallel straight lines. Faults: Short steps. The rear quarters should not pitch. The forelegs should not have a hackney gait (forced or choppy stripe). When moving swiftly the Great Dane should not pace for the reason that it causes excessive side-to-side rolling of the body and thus reduces endurance. (See Charts #6-7-8-8.)

b. Rear End (Croup, Legs, Paws) - 10 points
     The croup must be full, slightly drooping and must continue imperceptibly to the tail root. Hind legs, the first thighs (from hip join to knee) are broad and muscular. The second thighs (from knee to hock joint) are strong and long. Seen from the side, the angulation of the first thigh with the body, of the second thigh with the first thigh, and the pastern root with the second thigh should be very moderate, neither too straight nor too exaggerated (See Chart #10). Seen from the rear, the hock joints appear to be perfectly straight, turned neither towards the inside nor towards the outside (See Chart #11). Faults: a croup which is too straight (See Chart #12); a croup which slopes downward too steeply (See Chart #13); and too narrow a croup (See Chart #14). Hind legs: Soft, flabby, poorly muscled thighs; cowhocks (See Chart #15) which are the result of the hock joints turning inward and the hocks and rear paws turning outward: Barrel legs (See Chart #16), the result of the hock joints being too far apart; steep rear (See Chart #17); as seen from the side, a steep rear is the result of the angles of the rear legs forming almost a straight line; over-angulation (See Chart #18), is the result of exaggerated angles between the first and second thighs and the hocks and is very conducive to weakness. The rear legs should never bee too long in proportion to the front legs (See Chart #19).

     Paws, round and turned neither towards the inside nor towards the outside (See Chart #20). Toes short, highly arched and well closed (See Chart #21-22). Nails short, strong and as dark as possible. Faults: Spreading toes (splay foot) (See Chart #23); bent, long toes (rabbit paws) (See Chart #24); toes turned toward the outside or towards the inside (See Chart #25-26). Futhermore, the fifth toe on the hing legs appearing at a higher position and with wolf's claw or spur (See Chart #27); excessively long nails; light colored nails.



c1. Nose (no points)
    The nose must be large and in the case of the brindled and "single-colored" Danes, it must always been black. In harlequins, the nose should be black; a black spotted nose is permitted; a pink colored nose is not desirable. (See Charts #63-64)

c2. Ears (no points)
     Ears should be high, set not too far apart, medium in size, of moderate thickness, drooping forward close to the cheek. Top line of folded ear should be about level with the skull. (See Chart #65-66). Faults: hanging on the side as on a foxhound (See Charts #67-68).
     Cropped ears: high set, not set too far apart, well pointed but always in proportion to the shape of the head and uniformly erect. (See Charts #69-70).


4. TORSO --- 20 points

a. Neck - 6 points
     The neck should be firm and clean, high set, well arched, long, muscular and sinewy. From the chest to the head, it should be slightly tapering, beautifully formed, with well developed nape (See Chart #73). Faults: Short, heavy neck (See Chart #74); pendulous throat folds (dewlaps) (See Chart #75).

b. Loin and Back - 6 points
     The withers forms the highest part of the back which slopes downward slightly toward the loins, which are imperceptibly arched and strong. The back should be short and tensely set. The belly should be well shaped and tightly muscled, and, with the rear part of the thorax, should swing in a pleasing upward curve (tuck-up) (See Chart #78). Faults: Receding back (See Chart #79); sway back (See Chart #80); camel or roach back (See Chart #81); a back line which is too high at the rear (See Chart #82); an excessively long back (See Chart #80); poor tuck-up (See Chart #83).


3. HEAD --- 20 points

a. Head Conformation - 12 points
     Long, narrow, distinguished, expressive, finely chiseled, especially the part below the eyes (which means that the skull plane under and to the inner point of the eye must slope without any bony protuberance in a pleasing line to the full square jaw), with strongly pronounced stop. The masculinity of the male is very pronounced in the expression and structure of head (this subtle difference should be evident in the dog's head through massive skull and depth of muzzle, the bitch's head may be more delicately formed (See Charts #40-41). Seen from the side, the forehead must be sharply set off from the bridge of the nose. The forehead and the bridge of the nose must be straight and parallel to one another. Seen from the front, the head should appear narrow, the bridge of the nose should be as broad as possible (See Chart #42). The cheek muscles must show slightly but under no circumstances should they be too pronounced (cheeky). The muzzle part must have full flews and must be as blunt vertically as possible in front; the angles of the lip must be quite pronounced (See Chart #42).The front part of the head, from the tip of the nose up to the center of the stop should be as long as the rear part of the head from the center of the stop to the only slightly developed occiput (See Chart #40). The head should be angular from all sides and should have definite flat planes and its dimensions should be absolutely in proportion to the general appearance of the Dane. Faults: Any deviation from the parallel planes of skull and foreface (See Charts #43-44); too small a stop; a poorly defined stop (See Chart #45) or none at all (See Chart #46); too narrow a nose bridge; the rear of the head spreading laterally in a wedge-like manner (wedge head) (See Chart #47); an excessively round upper head (apple head) (See Chart #48); excessively pronounced cheek musculature (See Chart #49); pointed muzzle (See Chart #50); loose lips hanging over the lower jaw (fluttering lips) which create an illusion of a full deep muzzle (See Chart #51-52). The head should be rather shorter and distinguished than long and expressionless.


b. Teeth - 4 points
     Strong, well developed and clean. The incisors of the lower jaw must touch very lightly the bottoms of the inner surface of the upper incisors (scissors bite) (See Chart #53). If the front teeth of both jaws bite on top of each other, they wear down too rapidly. Faults: Even bite (See Chart #54); undershot and overshot (See Charts #55-56); incisors out of line; black or brown teeth; missing teeth.

c. Eyes - 4 points
     Medium size, as dark as possible, with lively intelligent expression; almond-shaped eyelids, well developed eyebrows (See Chart #57). Faults: Light colored piercing, amber colored, light blue to a watery blue, red or bleary eyes; eyes of different colors; eyes too far apart (See Chart #58); mongolian eyes (See Chart #59); eyes with pronounced haws (See Charts #60-61); eyes with excessively drooping lower eyelids (See Chart #62). In blue and black Danes, lighter eyes are permitted but are not desirable. In harlequins, the eyes should be dark. Light colored eyes, two eyes of different color and wall-eyes are permitted but not desirable.


c. Chest - 4 points
     Chest deals with that part of the thorax (rib cage) in front of the shoulders and front legs. The chest should be quite broad, deep and well muscled (See Chart #84). Faults: A narrow and poorly muscled chest; strong protruding sternum (pigeon breast) (See Chart #85).


d. Ribs and Brisket - 4 points
     Deals with that part of the thorax back of the shoulders and front legs. Should be broad, with the ribs sprung well out from the spine and flattened at the sides to allow proper movement of the shoulders, extending down to the elbow joint (See Charts #86-87). Faults: narrow (slab-sided) rib case (See Chart #88); round (barrel) rib cage (See Chart #89); shallow rib cage not reaching the elbow joint (See Chart #90).

5. TAIL --- 2 points

     Should start high and fairly broad, terminating slender and thin at the hock joint. At rest, the tail should fall straight (See Chart #91). When excited or running, slightly curved (saber like) (See Chart #92). Faults: A too high, or too low set tail (See Charts #93-94) (the tail is governed by the slope of the croup); too long or too short a tail (See Charts #95-96); tail bent too far over the back (ring tail) (See Chart #97); a tail which is curled (See Chart #98); a twisted tail (sideways) (See Chart #99); a tail carried too high over the back (gay tail) (See Chart #100); a brush tail (hair too long on lower side). Cropping tails to desired length is forbidden.



FAULTS OF THE GREAT DANE
Disqualification Faults
  • Deaf Danes
  • Danes under minimum height
  • Without visible scrotum
  • Spayed bitches
  • Monorchids
  • White Danes without any black marks (albino
  • Merles (a solid mouse-grey color or a mouse-gray base with black or white or both color spots or white base with mouse-gray spots
  • Harlequins and solid-colored Danes in which a large spot extends coat-like over the entire body so that only the legs, neck and the point of tail are white
  • Brindle, Fawn, Blue and Black Danes with white forehead line, white collars, high white stockings and white bellies
  • Danes with predominantly blue, gray, yellow or also brindled spots
  • Docked tails
  • Split noses
     The faults below are important according to their grouping (very serious, serious, minor) and not according to their sequence as placed in each grouping:

Very Serious
  • Lack of Unity
  • Poor Bone Development
  • Poor Musculature
  • Lightweight, Whippety Danes
  • Rickets
  • Timidity
  • Bitchy dog
  • Sway back
  • Roach back
  • Cow hocks
  • Pitching gait
  • Short steps
  • Undershot tooth
Serious
  • Out of condition
  • Coarseness
  • Any deviation from the standard on all coloration
  • Deviation from parallel planes of skull and foreface
  • Wedgehead
  • Poorly defined stop
  • Narrow nose bridge
  • Snipey muzzle
  • And color but dark eyes in fawns and brindles
  • Mongolian eyes
  • Missing teeth
  • Overshot teeth
  • Heavy neck
  • Short neck
  • Dew laps
  • Narrow chest
  • Narrow rib cage
  • Round rib cage
  • Shallow rib cage
  • Loose shoulders
  • Steep shoulders
  • Elbows turned inward
  • Chair legs (front)
  • Knotty bulge in pastern joint (adult dog)
  • Weak pastern roots
  • Receding back
  • Too long a back
  • Back high in rear
  • In harlequin, a pink nose
  • Poor tuckup (except in bitches that have been bred)
  • Too straight croup
  • Too sloping croup
  • Too narrow croup
  • Overangulation
  • Steep rear
  • Too long rear legs
  • Poorly muscled thighs
  • Barrel legs
  • Paws turned inward
  • Rabbit paws
  • Wolf's claw
  • Hackney gait
Minor
  • Doggy bitches
  • Small whit marks on chest and toes - Blues, Blacks, Brindles and Fawns
  • Few grey spots and pointings on Harlequins
  • In Halequins, black spotted nose
  • White tipped tail except in Harlequins
  • Excessively long hair
  • Excessively dull hair
  • Apple head
  • Small stop
  • Fluttering lips
  • Eyes too far apart
  • Drooping lower eyelids
  • Haws
  • And color but dark eyes in blacks, blues and harlequins
  • Discolored teeth
  • Even bite
  • Pigeon breast
  • Loaded shoulders
  • Elbows turned outwards
  • Paws turned inward
  • Splay foot
  • Excessively long toe nails
  • Light nails (except in harlequins)
  • Low-set tail
  • Too long a tail
  • Too short a tail
  • Gay tail
  • Curled tail
  • Twisted tail
  • D (coudln't decifer)

COMMITTEE
Donald E. Gauthier, Chairman
W. C. Burns, A. Gilchrist, N.J. Dicken, C.C.Staicer, C. Kapp
September 1944


Burgess Meredith with his Great Dane 1940's

Metropolitan Opera's Helden Tenor
Lauritz Melchior with wife

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